Morocco Turns Fog into Drinking Water  採霧的『綠』網


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2015/12/22 第242期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份直接訂閱


優惠活動訊息:見訊息
   

Morocco Turns Fog into Drinking Water  採霧的『綠』網

by Brian Foden

Fog harvesting is a green form of technology that is helping villagers get access to tap water.
採霧是現正幫助村民取得自來水的一種環保技術形式。

  For most people, fog is merely an interesting or perhaps annoying weather phenomenon that makes it difficult for us to see while driving or walking. However, for the 400 people in the five villages of the Sidi Ifni region in Morocco, it is providing a _(1)_ source of drinkable water. Through a process called fog harvesting, tiny water droplets are _(2)_ in panels of fine mesh. The 40 _(3)_ mesh panels have been set up at the top of a 1,225-meter mountain peak in the highlands of southwest Morocco. _(4)_ fog passes through the thin netting, water droplets are deposited on it in a process called condensation. The water drips _(5)_ and is added to a storage tank or cistern. The water is then transported through a pipe network to the _(6)_ 90 households in the region, allowing residents to get clean water from a tap for the first time ever.
  Fog harvesting is a completely green, low-tech process that has helped to transform the lifestyles of the people who _(7)_ in the five villages. _(8)_ this development, women of the villages had to make exhausting four-hour trips to and from faraway wells in order to get water for their families. Even so, during times of _(9)_, villagers had to pay for trucks to bring in more water for themselves and their cattle. Collecting water from fog is much cheaper and uses no energy, _(10)_ it an entirely green technology. The association that established the project hopes it can soon be expanded to other parts of Morocco in desperate need of convenient drinking water.

(A) roughly (B) or so (C) Prior to (D) drought (E) trapped
(F) valuable (G) downward (H) making  (I) As (J) reside

 
  1. However, for the 400 people in the five villages of the Sidi Ifni region in Morocco, it is providing a valuable source of drinkable water.
    不過,對於居住在摩洛哥西迪伊夫尼區五個村莊的四百個人來說,該現象卻是提供飲用水的寶貴來源。
    理由:
    a. 空格前有不定冠詞 a,空格後有名詞 source(來源),得知空格內應置形容詞以修飾 source。
    b. 選項中為形容詞的有 (E) trapped(陷入困境的)、(F) valuable(寶貴的)及(G) downward(向下的),惟根據語意,(F) 項應為正選。
    c. valuable a. 寶貴的,珍貴的
    同: precious a.
    Time is valuable, so you shouldn’t waste it.
    時間寶貴,因此你不該虛擲光陰。
  2. Through a process called fog harvesting, tiny water droplets are trapped in panels of fine mesh.
    透過這種稱為採霧的過程,微小的水滴被儲存到細網的面板。
    理由:
    a. 空格前有 be 動詞 are,空格後有介詞 in,得知空格內可置過去分詞或形容詞。
    b. 選項中符合上述的尚有 (E) trapped(儲存)及(G) downward(向下的),惟根據語意,(E) 項應為正選。
    c. trap vt. 儲存,留存(氣、水等);使受困
    衍: be trapped in…  被困在……
    My brother is a salesperson, and he sells solar panels that trap the sun’s heat.
    我哥哥是業務,銷售儲存太陽熱能的太陽能電池板。
    The five people that were trapped in the fire died from smoke inhalation.
    被困在火場中的那五個人因為吸入濃煙而死亡。
    *inhalation n. 吸入
  3. The 40 or so mesh panels have been set up at the top of a 1,225-meter mountain peak in the highlands of southwest Morocco.
    這四十個左右的網片被設立在摩洛哥西南部高原中的一座一千兩百二十五公尺山峰上。
    理由:
    a. 本題測試以下固定用法:
    數字 + or so  ……左右,大約……
    Sue is expected to make a full recovery in a week or so.
    小蘇預計大約一週後會完全康復。
    b. 根據上述用法,(B) 項應為正選。
  4. As fog passes through the thin netting, water droplets are deposited on it in a process called condensation.
    由於霧水會穿透薄網,因此水滴會堆積在上頭,這個過程稱為凝結。
    理由:
    a. 空格位於句首,且前後兩子句無連接詞相連,得知空格應置入字首為大寫的連接詞。
    b. 選項中僅 (I) As(由於,因為)為字首大寫的連接詞,置入後亦符合語意,故為正選。
    c. as conj. 由於,因為(= because)
    As Cathy has apologized to me, I’m going to forgive her.
    由於凱西已向我道歉,因此我會原諒她。
  5. The water drips downward and is added to a storage tank or cistern.
    這些水會向下滴落並注入存放槽或蓄水箱。
    理由:
    a. 空格前有不及物動詞 drips(滴下),空格後有連接
    詞 and(並且),得知空格內應置副詞以修飾 drips。
    b. 選項中為副詞的有 (A) roughly(大約)及(G) downward(向下地),惟根據語意,(G) 項應為正選。
    c. downward adv. 向下地
    反: upward adv. 向上地
    With a weak economy, property prices are going downward again.
    隨著經濟衰弱,房地產價格再度下跌。
  6. The water is then transported through a pipe network to the roughly 90 households in the region…
    接著,水會通過管網輸送到該區約九十個家庭……
    理由:
    a. 本題測試以下固定用法:
    roughly + 數量形容詞  大約……,……左右
    (常見的此類副詞尚有 about、around、some、nearly、approximately 等。)
    The couple married roughly 30 years ago.
    這對夫妻大約是在三十年前結婚。
    b. 根據上述用法,(A) 項應為正選。
  7. Fog harvesting is a completely green, low-tech process that has helped to transform the lifestyles of the people who reside in the five villages.
    採霧是一種完全環保且技術門檻不高的過程,它已幫助改善居住在這五個村莊人民的生活方式。
    理由:
    a. 空格前有關係代名詞 who 作主詞,空格後有介詞 in,得知空格內應置不及物動詞,以形成形容詞子句,修飾其前的先行詞 people(人民)。
    b. 選項中為不及物動詞的僅有 (J) reside(居住),置入後亦符合語意,故為正選。
    c. reside vi. 居住
    衍: reside in…  居住於……
    = dwell / live in…
    More and more people are choosing to reside in the suburbs.
    愈來愈多人選擇居住在郊區。
  8. Prior to this development, women of the villages had to make exhausting four-hour trips to and from faraway wells in order to get water for their families.
    在發展出這種設備之前,村裡的婦女必須耗費四小時的疲憊行程往返遙遠的水井,好為他們的家庭取得水源。
    理由:
    a. 空格位於句首,且空格後並非一完整子句,得知空格應置入字首為大寫的介詞或片語介詞。
    b. 選項中符合上述的僅有 (C) Prior to(在……之前),置入後亦符合語意,故為正選。
    c. 常見的片語介詞如下:
    according to…  根據/依照……
    along with…  與……一起
    regardless of…  不顧/不管……
    d. prior to…  在……之前
    同: before…
    Make sure you have the report ready prior to the meeting.
    務必確定你在會議之前要把報告準備好。
  9. Even so, during times of drought, villagers had to pay for trucks to bring in more water for themselves and their cattle.
    即便如此,在乾旱期間,村民還得支付卡車運費以運載更多供應自家及其牛隻的水。
    理由:
    a. 空格前有介詞 of,得知空格內應置名詞或動名詞。
    b. 選項中符合上述的有 (D) drought(乾旱)及 (H) making(使得;製造),惟根據語意,(D) 項應為正選。
    c. drought n. 乾旱
    The long drought caused an acute shortage of water in West Africa.
    長期乾旱造成西非地區嚴重缺水。
    *acute a. 嚴重的;急性的(疾病)
  10. Collecting water from fog is much cheaper and uses no energy, making it an entirely green technology.
    從霧中取水便宜許多且不使用任何能源,使得這種方法成為一種完全環保的技術。
    理由:
    a. 原句實為:
    Collecting water from fog is much cheaper and uses no energy, which makes it an entirely green technology.
    b. 本句省略了修飾空格前整個句子作為先行詞的關係代名詞 which,並將 makes 變為現在分詞 making;若動詞為 be 動詞,變成現在分詞 being 後,可將 being 省略。
    c. 根據上述用法,(H) 項應為正選。

mesh n. 網狀物
netting n. 網
condensation n. 凝結
cistern n. 蓄水箱

  1. get access to…  進入/使用……
    The burglar got access to the house through the kitchen window.
    該竊賊從廚房窗戶進入這間屋子。
  2. be transported to…  被運送到……
    transport vt. 運送,運輸
    These new cars will be transported to Italy by ship.
    這些新車將會船運到義大利去。
    The shipping company unknowingly transported the illegal goods.
    該船運公司在不知情的情況下運送了非法物品。
    *unknowingly adv. 不知不覺地
  3. to and from…  往返於??
    衍: commute to and from…  通勤往返於……
    Most people in Taipei commute to and from work by public transportation.
    大部份的臺北人搭大眾運輸工具通勤上下班。
  4. in need of…  需要……
    If you see someone who is in need of help, you should take matters into your own hands.
    你若看見有人需要幫助,就應該挺身而出。
  1. fog n. 霧 & vi. 起霧,被霧籠罩(動詞三態為:fog, fogged, fogged。)
    衍: fog up  (玻璃、鏡片)起霧
    I couldn’t see anything in front of me because of the heavy fog.
    我看不到前方的任何東西,因為霧太大了。
    My glasses fogged up as soon as I walked out the door.
    我一走出門外,眼鏡馬上起霧。
  2. tap water  自來水
    tap n. 水龍頭(英式)
    同: faucet n. 水龍頭(美式)
  3. droplet n.(液體的)小滴
  4. peak n. 山峰;高峰 & vi. 達到巔峰
    衍: at one’s peak  在某人的巔峰時期
    The well-known tennis player, Pete Sampras, was at his peak in the 1990s.
    網球名將皮特•山普拉斯於 1990 年代到達巔峰。
    The unemployment rate peaked at 8.1 percent in May.
    五月份失業率達到了百分之八點一的高峰。
  5. deposit vt. 使沉積;存放(銀行)
    As the river slows down, it deposits a layer of soil.
    河水流速變慢時,它便會使一層泥沙沉積。
    Please deposit the money into my account by noon tomorrow.
    請在明天中午前把錢存進我的戶頭裡。
  6. pipe n. 管,導管,輸送管;煙斗
    衍: bagpipe n. 風笛
    tailpipe n.(車輛的)排氣管
    windpipe n. 氣管
  7. exhausting a. 令人疲憊不堪的
    同: tiring a.
    = grueling a.
    I enjoy taking a bath to relax after an exhausting day at work.
    經過一天疲勞的工作後,我喜歡泡澡放鬆。
  8. faraway a. 偏遠的,遙遠的
    同: remote a.
    Anthropologists often travel to faraway regions to study primitive cultures.
    人類學家時常到偏遠的地區研究原始文化。
    *anthropologist n. 人類學家
  9. cattle n. 牛(集合名詞,作複數用)
    衍: a herd of cattle  一群牛
    注意 cattle 如同 people 一樣,視作複數名詞,可被 two 以上的數量詞(如 three、four、many 等)修飾。如:
    two cattle   兩隻牛
    many cattle   許多牛
    The man is trying to round up a scattered herd of cattle.
    這名男子正試圖把分散的牛群趕在一起。
    Many cattle were grazing on the meadow.
    許多牛正在牧場上吃草。
    *graze vi.(牛羊等)吃草
    meadow n. 草地,牧草地
  10. desperate a. 極為渴望的
    衍: be desperate for N/V-ing  極想要(做)……
    The couple are desperate for a child.
    這對夫妻渴望擁有孩子。


採霧的『綠』網
採霧是現正幫助村民取得自來水的一種環保技術形式。
  對大多數的人來說,霧僅僅是一種有趣又或者是惱人的天氣現象,這種天氣現象讓我們難以在開車或走路時看得清楚。不過,對於居住在摩洛哥西迪伊夫尼區五個村莊的四百個人來說,該現象卻是提供飲用水的寶貴來源。透過這種稱為採霧的過程,微小的水滴被儲存到細網的面板。這四十個左右的網片被設立在摩洛哥西南部高原中的一座一千兩百二十五公尺山峰上。由於霧水會穿透薄網,因此水滴會堆積在上頭,這個過程稱為凝結。這些水會向下滴落並注入存放槽或蓄水箱。接著,水會通過管網輸送到該區約九十個家庭,讓居民有史以來第一次從水龍頭獲得潔淨的水。
  採霧是一種完全環保且技術門檻不高的過程,它已幫助改善居住在這五個村莊人民的生活方式。在發展出這種設備之前,村裡的婦女必須耗費四小時的疲憊行程往返遙遠的水井,好為他們的家庭取得水源。即便如此,在乾旱期間,村民還得支付卡車運費以運載更多供應自家及其牛隻的水。從霧中取水便宜許多且不使用任何能源,使得這種方法成為一種完全環保的技術。創建這項工程的協會希望它能儘快擴展到對便利飲用水有迫切需求的其他摩洛哥地區。
答案: 1. F 2. E 3. B 4. I 5. G 6. A 7. J 8. C 9. D 10. H

 
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